Biblical Studies


The Bible is the chief textbook of the Seminary and is integral to the entire curriculum. An effective Christian ministry in any direction must be based upon a thorough understanding of the Scriptures, skill in exegesis, and zeal in the application of its message to the needs of humanity. Work in this area of study is organized to give the student a comprehensive understanding of the contents of the Bible through a survey of its message in both Old and New Testaments, an understanding of Bible background through historical and archaeological investigation into the conditions of the world in which it was produced, and skill in its interpretation through a study of its original languages and methods of interpretation. Through elective courses in biblical theology and exegesis, students are encouraged to pursue a deeper understanding of the message of the Bible and its application to specific contexts. Through the library, the tools for Bible study and the results of biblical research are made available to all students.

Archaeology

S2011 New Testament Backgrounds
Arbino, Hahne, R. Melick, Faculty/2-3 hours
A study, using written and unwritten sources, of the political, socioeconomic, and religious developments among the Jewish people and in the Greco-Roman world from Alexander to the Second Jewish Revolt, as they relate to an understanding of the New Testament. (Identical to S2311.)

S2012 Field Work in Archaeology
Arbino/3-6 hours
Participation in a major archaeological expedition. Selected reading and conferences prior to departure for the site are required. The expedition itself will ordinarily last from five to eight weeks and will include travel, lectures, seminars, and extensive experience in supervised excavation.

S2013 Field Work in Archaeology
Arbino/3-6 hours
Participation in a major archaeological expedition, including five to eight weeks of supervised excavation and work with a specialty staff. Advanced reading and a research project are required. Prerequisite: S2012 or equivalent, and permission of the professor.

S2014 New Testament Lands and Customs
Faculty/2-3 hours
An introduction to the geography, history, and customs of Biblical lands through readings and audio-visual presentations. The history and description of specific cities and their importance in the New Testament era will be emphasized. (Identical to S2314.)

S2015 The Land of the Gospel
Faculty/2-3 hours
A study of the history and geography of Palestine with primary consideration given to the life of Jesus. The course will involve a tour of the major New Testament sites in Palestine, reading, and the preparation of a paper. Permission of New Testament faculty required. (Identical to S2315.)

S2016 Archaeology and the Biblical World
Arbino/2-3 hours
A study of the theory, practice, and results of archaeology as these relate to the background, text, and content of the biblical record as well as the context of the Christian church through the Roman and Byzantine Periods.

S2017 Ancient Near Eastern Texts and the Bible
Arbino/2-3 hours
A study of selected, translated literature from the ancient Near East which has significance for biblical study. Selections will include Akkadian, Ugaritic, Egyptian, and Qumran texts.

S3000 Special Studies in Archaeology
Arbino/1-3 hours
A flexible program designed to take advantage of unique opportunities and to meet the specialized needs of certain students. Among the possibilities are classes taught by visiting professors, reading courses, special projects, individual study, and supervised field experience.

Biblical Studies

S2512 History of the English Bible
Kuykendall/2 hours
A study of the English Bible from its beginnings to modern English translations. (Identical to L2132.)

S2514 Computer Tools for Biblical Research
Hahne, R. Melick, Watson/1-3 hours
An introduction to computer tools for research and writing in biblical and theological studies. The course examines the selection and proper use of computer software as an aid to traditional research methods. Practical hands-on experience in using a computer for research and Bible study will be included.

S2521 Biblical Hermeneutics

Arbino, Hahne, Kuykendall, Martin, R. Melick, Veteto, Wiarda/2 hours
A course designed to further the student's hermeneutic knowledge and skills and to provide an opportunity to hone and practice exegetical skills through the application of recognized methodological principles of hermeneutics in the interpretation of selected texts.

S2523 Hermeneutics in a Cross-Cultural Context
R. Melick/2 hours
A learn-by-doing course in which the student applies the recognized principles of hermeneutics by writing interpretations of various New Testament texts and doing hermeneutical integration in a cross-cultural setting. A study in the various authors and genres found in the New Testament will guide students as they learn to bridge the gap between biblical and modern worldviews and facilitate the spiritual maturation of individuals and communities they serve. Prerequisites: S1112/3 or S1114 and S1312/3 or S1314.

S4500/S5500 Special Studies in Biblical Studies (THM and PHD)
Faculty/3 hours
A flexible program designed to take advantage of unique opportunities and to meet the specialized needs of certain students. Among the possibilities are seminars taught by visiting professors, programs of independent study, reading courses, special projects, and field education experience. Permission of the professor required.

S4511/S5511 Hermeneutics Seminar (THM and PHD)
R. Melick/3 hours
An advanced study of the principles of interpreting the Bible including historical, philosophical, linguistic, theological, and biblical issues related to the discipline. Special attention will be given to specifically biblical issues such as the interpretation of prophecy, the New Testament use of the Old Testament, contextualization, and the contemporary relevance of Scripture. Permission of the professor required.

Old Testament


General Old Testament Studies

S1112 Old Testament Introduction I
Arbino, Smith, Watson, Yang, Faculty/3 hours
This course is a foundational introduction to the content, background, interpretation, and critical studies of the Old Testament, with a survey and study of the books of the Torah and the first two books of the Former Prophets.

S1113 Old Testament Introduction II
Arbino, Smith, Watson, Yang, Faculty/3 hours
This course is a continuation of the general introduction to the content, background, interpretation, and critical studies of the Old Testament. The focus is a survey and study of the books of the Former Prophets (Samuel and Kings), Latter Prophets, and the Writings, with attention directed to hermeneutical application of the foundation given in OT Introduction I. Prerequisite: S1112 OT Introduction I.

S2111 Old Testament History
Arbino, Watson/3 hours
An advanced study of selected aspects of the history of ancient Israel and Judah in the context of the physical, social, cultural, political, and literary environments of the ancient Near East. Special attention will be given to the integration of the theological focus of the biblical material into these aspects of the ancient world.

S2113 Old Testament Theology
Arbino, Smith, Watson, Yang/3 hours
A study and discussion of the major issues involved in defining and researching theology as found in the Old Testament and appropriated by the Christian community. Attention will be given to both the texts and contexts of the theological enterprise through a variety of interpretive methodologies.

S4111/S5111 Old Testament Theology Seminar (THM and PHD)
Arbino, Watson/3 hours
A study and discussion of the major issues involved in defining and researching theology as found in the Old Testament and appropriated by the Christian community. Attention will be given to both the texts and contexts of the theological enterprise through a variety of interpretive methodologies. Permission of the professor required. (Identical to L4212.)

S4112/S5112 Old Testament History Seminar (THM and PHD)
Arbino, Watson/3 hours
An advanced study of selected aspects of the history of ancient Israel and Judah in the context of the physical, social, cultural, political, and literary environments of the ancient Near East. Special attention will be given to the integration of the theological focus of the biblical material into these aspects of the ancient world. Permission of the professor required. (Identical to L4113.)

Studies in the Torah

S2121 Genesis
Arbino, Smith, Watson, Yang/2-3 hours
A class designed to provide the student opportunity and resources to make a serious exegetical study of the book of Genesis.

S2122 Exodus
Arbino, Smith, Watson/2-3 hours
An exegetical study of the English text of the book of Exodus, with particular emphasis upon the theological significance of the book for Israel’s faith.

S2125 Studies in Deuteronomy
Arbino, Smith, Watson/2-3 hours
A critical, historical, and interpretative study of the origin, growth, and formation of the Deuteronomic materials. Attention will also be given to the theological significance of the book.

Studies in the Prophets

S2131 The Former Prophets
Arbino, Smith, Watson/2-3 hours
A study of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings, with particular emphasis upon the emergence of Israel as a nation, its subsequent division and fall, the relationship between God and Israel, and the rise and flowering of the prophetic movement.

S2132 The Eighth-Century Prophets

Arbino, Smith, Watson, Yang/2-3 hours
An exegetical study of the English text of Amos, Hosea, Isaiah 1-39, and Micah, with particular emphasis upon their message for their times and its relevance for the contemporary world.

S2133 Jeremiah
Arbino, Smith, Watson/2-3 hours
An exegetical study of the English text of the book of Jeremiah, with emphasis upon the prophet’s message for his day and its enduring meaning.

S2134 Ezekiel
Watson/2-3 hours
A historical, exegetical, and theological study of Ezekiel, with special attention to the challenges to Israel’s faith presented by the Exile.

S2135 Exilic Isaiah
Smith, Watson/2-3 hours
An exegetical study of the English text of Isaiah 40-66. Attention is paid to questions of date, authorship, literary form, and structure. The emphasis, however, is on the prophet’s message for his day and its enduring meaning.

S2136 Postexilic Prophets
Arbino, Smith, Watson/2-3 hours
An expositional study of the postexilic prophets with special reference to the history and religion of Israel and to their contribution to the religious thought of the Old Testament.

S2137 Joshua and Judges
Arbino, Smith, Watson/2-3 hours
An exegesis of the English text of the books of Joshua and Judges. Emphasis will be placed on the genre and structure of the books and the canonical relationship between them, as well as historical and social-scientific considerations. The course will focus on both the ancient context and modern application of these books.

S2145 I & II Kings
Arbino, Smith, Watson/2-3 hours
A study of the text and context of the books of I & II Kings with special emphasis on leadership in ancient Israel and Judah.

Studies in the Writings

S2141 Job
Watson, Yang/2-3 hours
A study of the message of the book of Job, with emphasis upon its contemporary applications to the human predicament in the light of current research.

S2142 The Psalms
Smith, Watson, Yang/2-3 hours
An exegetical study of the English text of the Psalms in the light of contemporary research.

S2143 Ecclesiastes
Watson, Yang/2-3 hours
An analysis of the growth of the wisdom movement with attention given to the content and message of Ecclesiastes with its relevance for contemporary society.

S2144 Daniel and the Apocalyptic Movement
Arbino, Watson/2-3 hours
An investigation of the origin and the development of apocalyptic thought and literature in Israel followed by exegetical study in the book of Daniel.
S2151 Ruth and Esther
Watson, Yang/2-3 hours
This course includes a critical study of Ruth and Esther as literary works and explores the socio-historical context of the books, the relation of the characters in the stories, and the theological significance of their place in the Old Testament.

Special Studies

S3100 Special Studies in the Old Testament
Faculty/1-3 hours
A flexible program designed to take advantage of unique opportunities and to meet the specialized needs of certain students. Among the possibilities are classes taught by visiting professors, reading courses, special projects, and individual study.

S4100/S5100 Special Studies in the Old Testament (THM and PHD)
Faculty/3 hours
A flexible program designed to take advantage of unique opportunities and to meet the specialized needs of certain students. Among the possibilities are seminars taught by visiting professors, programs of independent study, reading courses, special projects, and field education experience. Permission of the professor required.

Hebrew

S1211 Introduction to Old Testament Hebrew
Arbino, Sailhamer, Smith, Watson, Yang, Faculty/3 hours
This course is an introduction to the grammar and syntax of biblical Hebrew. It provides the foundation for proper exegetical study of the Hebrew Old Testament.

S22__ Hebrew Exegesis
Arbino, Sailhamer, Smith, Watson, Yang, Faculty/2 hours
This course is an exegesis of a designated Old Testament text with additional study of Hebrew grammar and syntax beyond that undertaken in Introduction to Old Testament Hebrew.

S3200 Special Studies in Hebrew
Faculty/1-3 hours
A flexible program designed to take advantage of unique opportunities and to meet the specialized needs of certain students. Among the possibilities are classes taught by visiting professors, reading courses, special projects, and individual study.

New Testament


General New Testament Studies

S1312 New Testament Introduction I
Hahne, Kuykendall, Martin, R. Melick, Veteto, Wiarda/3 hours
This course is an introduction to the content, background, and criticism of the Gospels, including an introduction to biblical hermeneutics.

S1313 New Testament Introduction II
Hahne, Kuykendall, Martin, R. Melick, Veteto, Wiarda/3 hours
This course is an introduction to the content, background, and criticism of Acts, the Epistles, and Revelation (including an introduction to the canonization of the New Testament) and a continuing overview of biblical hermeneutics begun in New Testament Introduction I. Prerequisite: S1312 NT Introduction I.

S2311 New Testament Backgrounds
Arbino, Hahne, R. Melick/2-3 hours
A study, using written and unwritten sources, of the political, socioeconomic, and religious developments among the Jewish people and in the Greco-Roman world from Alexander to the Second Jewish Revolt, as they relate to an understanding of the New Testament.

S2314 New Testament Lands and Customs
Kuykendall, Faculty/2-3 hours
An introduction to the geography, history, and customs of Bible Lands through readings and audio-visual presentations. The history and descriptions of specific cities and their importance in the New Testament era will be emphasized. (Identical to S2014.)

S2315 The Land of the Gospel
Faculty/2-3 hours
A study of the history and geography of Palestine with primary consideration to the life of Jesus. The course will involve a tour of the major New Testament sites in Palestine, reading, and the preparation of a paper. Permission of New Testament faculty required. (Identical to S2015)

S2316 Preaching the New Testament
Hahne, R. Melick, Veteto/2-3 hours
An investigation and application of the principles of exegesis, hermeneutics, and homiletical method to the distinctive literary genre of the New Testament. The course stresses the application of method for the construction of sermons which effectively communicate the biblical text.

S2612 The Theology of Paul and John
Hahne, R. Melick/2-3 hours
A theological interpretation of the biblical materials. Key words from the thought of the Pauline and/or Johannine material will be examined as to their background. Suggestions for translating the first century theological content into contemporary categories will be given.

S4315/S5315 Pauline Theology Seminar (THM and PHD)
Martin, R. Melick, Veteto/3 hours
An exegetical and theological examination of the writings of Paul with the goal of discerning that coherent faith which undergirds and unites the content of his epistles. A variety of scholarly perspectives regarding the background, the unity and diversity, and the organizational center of Paul’s proclamation of the gospel will also be surveyed. Permission of the professor required. (Identical to L4213.)

S4319/S5319 The Theology of the Synoptic Gospels (THM and PHD)
Wiarda, Faculty/3 hours
An investigation of the distinctive emphasis and contribution of the first three Gospels. Special attention is given to the contemporary discussion on the compositional strategy, historical reliability, and purpose of the Gospels. Permission of the professor required. (Identical to L4214.)

Studies in the Gospels

S2321 The Gospel According to Matthew
Hahne/2-3 hours
An exegetical study of the Gospel according to Matthew, its background, and its theology. Prerequisites: S1312 and S1313, or S1314.

S2322 The Gospel According to Mark
Wiarda, Faculty/2-3 hours
An exegetical study of the Gospel according to Mark, its background, and its theology.

S2323 The Gospel According to Luke
Wiarda, Faculty/2-3 hours
An exegetical study of the Gospel according to Luke, its background, and its theology.

S2324 The Gospel According to John
Hahne, Kuykendall, R. Melick, Veteto/2-3 hours
An exegetical study of the Fourth Gospel, its background, and message.

S2325 The Sermon on the Mount
Hahne, Kuykendall, Veteto, Wiarda/2-3 hours
An intensive exegetical study of the Sermon in the light of its background in Jewish thought and the influence it has had on Christian thought and practice.

S2326 The Parables of Jesus
Hahne, Kuykendall, R. Melick/2-3 hours
An intensive study of the parables, their original settings, their use in the early church, the history of their interpretation, and their modern application.

S2327 Jesus and the Gospels
Hahne/2-3 hours
A study of the significant contribution of each Gospel writer to an understanding of Jesus in His first century context. Jesus’ teaching in word and deed is examined to understand His intention for His ministry insofar as the writer gives us access to Jesus.

Studies in the Apostolic Period

S2331 Primitive Christianity
Faculty/2-3 hours
An examination of the life and development of the primitive church within the first Christian century with an emphasis on its geographical expansion, organization, worship, and ministry, using New Testament documents and other primary sources.

S2332 The Acts of the Apostles
Wiarda, Faculty/2-3 hours
A study of the Book of Acts with special emphasis on the geographical expansion, doctrinal development, significant issues, and personalities of the early church.

S2341 The Epistle to the Romans
Hahne, Kuykendall, R. Melick, Veteto, Wiarda/2-3 hours
An intensive exegesis of the Epistle of Paul to the Romans in the light of its background and purpose.

S2342 I and 2 Corinthians
Kuykendall, R. Melick, Veteto/2-3 hours
An intensive exegesis of the two letters of Paul to the Corinthians in light of their background and purpose.

S2346 The Shorter Pauline Epistles
Hahne, R. Melick, Veteto/2-3 hours
An exegetical study of one or more of the shorter epistles of Paul in the light of their background, purpose, and application to today.

S2348 The Pastoral Epistles
R. Melick, Veteto/2-3 hours
An exegetical study of 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus, their background, purpose, theology, and applications for today.

S2349 Paul, the Man, His Writings and Thought
Hahne, R. Melick/2-3 hours
An organization and interpretation of Paul’s thought by examining his environment and work and the influences that produced his writings.

S2350 The Epistle to the Hebrews
Hahne, Veteto/2-3 hours
An exegetical study of the Epistle to the Hebrews, its background and theology, with emphasis on its present-day value.

S2352 The Epistles of Peter and Jude
R. Melick/2-3 hours
An extensive exegesis of the Epistles of Peter and Jude in the light of their background and purpose.

S2360 Book of Revelation
Kuykendall, Wiarda/2-3 hours
A study of the message of the Book of Revelation in light of its background and purpose. Special emphasis will be placed on analyzing the different methods of interpretation.

S2361 The Search for the Historical Jesus
Faculty/3 hours
A study of the search for the “Historical Jesus” from the Enlightenment to the present day. Special attention will be given to the “Old Quest”, the “New Quest”, and the work of the “Jesus Seminar”, as well as other present-day scholars.

S2362 The Basis of Authority in the New Testament and the Church

Faculty/3 hours
A course designed to investigate the basis for authority as it functions in the New Testament and compare this with the basis of authority in the post-apostolic church.

S3300 Special Studies in the New Testament
R. Melick/1-3 hours
A flexible program designed to take advantage of unique opportunities and to meet the specialized needs of certain students. Among the possibilities are classes taught by visiting professors, reading courses, special projects, and individual study.

S4300/S5300 Special Studies in the New Testament (THM and PHD)

Faculty/3 hours
A flexible program designed to take advantage of unique opportunities and to meet the specialized needs of certain students. Among the possibilities are seminars taught by visiting professors, programs of independent study, reading courses, special projects, and field education experience. Permission of the professor required.

S4361/S5361 The Search for the Historical Jesus (THM and PHD)
Faculty/3 hours
A study of the search for the “Historical Jesus” from the Enlightenment to the present day. Special attention will be given to the “Old Quest”, the “New Quest”, and the work of the “Jesus Seminar”, as well as other present-day scholars. Permission of the professor required.

Greek

S1411 Introduction to New Testament Greek
Hahne, Kuykendall, Martin, R. Melick, Veteto, Wiarda, Faculty/3 hours
An introduction to the Greek language designed to develop reading ability and to serve as a foundation for exegetical study of the Greek New Testament.

S24__ Greek Exegesis
Hahne, Kuykendall, Martin, R. Melick, Veteto, Wiarda, Faculty/2 hours
This course is an exegesis of a designated New Testament text, with additional study of Greek grammar and syntax beyond that undertaken in S1411. Prerequisite: S1411.

S2451 Canon and Text of the New Testament
Kuykendall/2-3 hours
An introduction to the production, transmission, and canonization of the books of the New Testament, with special attention given to the history and practice of textual criticism. Prerequisite: S1411, or permission of the instructor.

S3400 Special Studies in Greek
Faculty/1-3 hours
A flexible program designed to take advantage of unique opportunities and to meet the specialized needs of certain students. Among the possibilities are classes taught by visiting professors, reading courses, special projects, and individual study. Prerequisites: S1411 or permission of professor.
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